Hip Videos: Fracture
- Hip arthroscopy is useful in the treatment of several intra-articular pathologies, however, its use in high-energy hip and pelvis injuries raises concerns about fluid extravasion and stability of the pelvic ring. We present our arthroscopic surgical technique (initial access to the peripheral compartment) to remove intra-articular loose bodies and treat associated lesions, as well as our concerns with the technique, in case of a traumatic hip dislocation associated with a contralateral pelvic ring injury.
- Intra-articular lesions are common in patients with acetabular hip dysplasia. Rim stress fractures (RSFs) have also been described in patients with acetabular hip dysplasia. This lesion is believed to be a result of an unfused secondary ossification center or a stress fracture that could be caused by repetitive impingement of an abnormal-shaped femoral head-neck junction. In addition, osteochondritis dissecans of the acetabulum is a rare condition that can also result from impingement and has been described in patients with hip dysplasia.
- Femoroacetabular impingement is uncommonly associated to a rim fracture. Complete resection of the fragment might result in iatrogenic instability or poor femoral head coverage. In this report, we describe the step-by-step surgical technique of arthroscopic partial resection of a rim fracture, reduction and internal fixation of the remaining fragment to correct the impingement, and preserve the adequate acetabular coverage.
- Femoral head fractures after posterior dislocation of the hip are uncommon and are conventionally treated by an open method. Hip arthroscopy can be a valuable treatment option for the management of femoral head fractures. Arthroscopy allows for a less invasive option when compared with arthrotomy and can allow faster recovery with minimal soft-tissue injury. We describe the arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation of Pipkin type I femoral head fractures with a detailed stepwise description of the surgical technique, including technical pearls and pitfalls, potential complications, and advantages and disadvantages.
- Traumatic hip dislocations are associated with chondral and labral pathology as well as loose bodies that can be incarcerated in the joint. These types of injury often lead to traumatic arthritis. In some cases an osseo-labral fragment may become incarcerated in the joint that is not readily visualized preoperatively. In place of open surgery, hip arthroscopy permits a technique to remove loose bodies and repair labral tears to restore joint congruity and achieve fracture reduction and fixation.
- We present the case of a femoral head malunion with lateral cephalic femoroacetabular impingement managed by arthroscopic osteotomy/takedown, bone grafting, internal fixation, and cephaloplasty. The treatment rationale and surgical technique are presented. A successful outcome at 3 years was obtained with radiographic evidence of union without osteonecrosis. Even beyond acute femoral head osteosynthesis, arthroscopic surgery may enhance the ability to treat femoral head malunions. Moreover, arthroscopic osteosynthesis may address lateral cephalic FAI, a previously unreported condition.
- Femoral head fractures associated with acetabular fractures are usually treated by an open method. After a closed reduction of a hip dislocation, open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures usually depend on the type of acetabular fracture. Acetabular fractures associated with femoral head fractures, torn labrums, or osteochondral fractures are often managed simultaneously by a posterior approach. The patient in this study was referred to us because of pain and limited motion after open reduction and internal fixation of an acetabular fracture.
- The clamshell fracture of the femoral head and its arthroscopic osteosynthesis are described. This suprafoveal osteochondral fracture may have folded onto itself during closed reduction of the associated anterior hip dislocation. The resultant fracture fragment had almost circumferential chondral coverage that required arthroscopic manipulation to “pry apart the clamshell,” permitting arthroscopic reduction. This patient also had pre-existing silent femoroacetabular impingement, and the novel use of arthroscopic acetabuloplasty permitted internal fixation by improving the path for headless screw fixation.